What is the typical presentation of vertebral artery dissection (VAD)?

Updated: Feb 21, 2019
  • Author: Eddy S Lang, MDCM, CCFP(EM), CSPQ; Chief Editor: Barry E Brenner, MD, PhD, FACEP  more...
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Answer

The typical presentation of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a young person with severe occipital headache and posterior nuchal pain [29, 30] following a recent, relatively minor, head or neck injury. [3, 31] The trauma is generally from a trivial mechanism but is associated with some degree of cervical distortion.

Focal neurologic signs attributable to ischemia of the brainstem or cerebellum ultimately develop in 85% of patients; however, a latent period as long as 3 days between the onset of pain and the development of central nervous system (CNS) sequelae is not uncommon. Delays of weeks and years also have been reported. Many patients present only at the onset of neurologic symptoms. Thus, when VAD is suspected, clinicians should evaluate patients for the presence of a unilateral headache and/or neck pain and vertigo, with or without objective neurologic signs. [29]

When neurologic dysfunction does occur, patients most commonly report symptoms attributable to lateral medullary dysfunction (ie, Wallenberg syndrome).


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