What are the pulmonary signs and symptoms of venous air embolism (VAE)?

Updated: Dec 30, 2017
  • Author: Brenda L Natal, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Erik D Schraga, MD  more...
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Pulmonary features include the following:

  • Adventitious sounds (rales, wheezing)
  • Tachypnea
  • Hemoptysis
  • Cyanosis
  • Decreased end-tidal carbon dioxide, arterial oxygen saturation, and tension
  • Hypercapnia
  • Increased pulmonary vascular resistance and airway pressures
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Apnea

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