What is the pathophysiology of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)?

Updated: Jan 13, 2017
  • Author: James E Keany, MD, FACEP; Chief Editor: Erik D Schraga, MD  more...
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Answer

PVCs reflect activation of the ventricles from a site below the atrioventricular node (AVN). Suggested mechanisms for PVCs are reentry, triggered activity, and enhanced automaticity.

Reentry occurs when an area of one-way block in the Purkinje fibers and a second area of slow conduction are present. This condition is frequently seen in patients with underlying heart disease that creates areas of differential conduction and recovery due to myocardial scarring or ischemia. During ventricular activation, the area of slow conduction activates the blocked part of the system after the rest of the ventricle has recovered, resulting in an extra beat. Reentry can produce single ectopic beats, or it can trigger paroxysmal tachycardia.

Triggered beats are considered to be due to after-depolarizations triggered by the preceding action potential. These are often seen in patients with ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity and reperfusion therapy after myocardial infarction (MI).

Enhanced automaticity suggests an ectopic focus of pacemaker cells in the ventricle that has a subthreshold potential for firing. The basic rhythm of the heart raises these cells to threshold, which precipitates an ectopic beat. This process is the underlying mechanism for arrhythmias due to excess catecholamines and some electrolyte deficiencies, particularly hyperkalemia.


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