What are the signs and symptoms of cholesterol embolism syndrome?

Updated: Oct 25, 2019
  • Author: Lisa Kirkland, MD, FACP, FCCM, MSHA; Chief Editor: Vincent Lopez Rowe, MD  more...
  • Print
Answer

Constitutional manifestations of cholesterol embolism include the following:

  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Hypermetabolic state

Cardiovascular manifestations include the following:

  • Tachycardia
  • Uncontrolled or accelerating hypertension
  • Intact peripheral pulses with livedo reticularis and tissue ischemia - These findings suggest small-vessel occlusion, such as cholesterol embolization, in a patient at risk

Neurologic manifestations include the following:

  • Hollenhorst plaques in retinal arteries
  • Hemispheric ischemic stroke
  • Paraplegia
  • Confusion
  • Delirium

Renal manifestations include the following:

Dermatologic manifestations include the following:

  • Gangrene, nodules, purpura, cyanosis, ulcerations (in 35-90% of patients)
  • Livedo reticularis
  • Infarction of perineal area
  • Ischemic patches involving lower extremities more often than upper
  • Blue toe syndrome and splinter hemorrhages [5]

GI manifestations include the following:

Other manifestations are as follows:


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!