Which physical findings are characteristic of diabetes-related atherosclerosis?

Updated: Oct 15, 2020
  • Author: Tanzim Khan, DPM; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Physical examination discloses absent or diminished peripheral pulses below a certain level.

Although diminished common femoral artery pulsation is characteristic of aortoiliac disease, infrainguinal disease alone is characterized by normal femoral pulses at the level of the inguinal ligament and diminished or absent pulses distally. Specifically, loss of the femoral pulse just below the inguinal ligament occurs with a proximal superficial femoral artery occlusion. Loss of the popliteal artery pulse suggests superficial femoral artery occlusion, typically in the adductor canal.

Loss of pedal pulses is characteristic of disease of the distal popliteal artery or its trifurcation. However, be aware that absence of the dorsalis pedis pulse may be a normal anatomic variant that is noted in about 10% of the pediatric population. On the other hand, the posterior tibial pulse is present in 99.8% of persons aged 0-19 years. Hence, absence of both pedal pulses is a more specific indicator of peripheral arterial disease.

Other findings suggestive of atherosclerotic disease include a bruit heard overlying the iliac or femoral arteries, skin atrophy, loss of pedal hair growth, cyanosis of the toes, ulceration or ischemic necrosis, and pallor of the involved foot followed by dependent rubor after 1-2 minutes of elevation above heart level.


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