What is the pathophysiology of diabetes-related atherosclerosis?

Updated: Oct 15, 2020
  • Author: Tanzim Khan, DPM; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Overall, people with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher incidence of atherosclerosis, thickening of capillary basement membranes, arteriolar hyalinosis, and endothelial proliferation. Calcification and thickening of the arterial media (Mönckeberg sclerosis) are also noted with higher frequency in the diabetic population, although whether these factors have any impact on the circulatory status is unclear.

Diabetic persons, like people who are not diabetic, may develop atherosclerotic disease of large-sized and medium-sized arteries, such as aortoiliac and femoropopliteal atherosclerosis. However, significant atherosclerotic disease of the infrapopliteal segments is particularly common in the diabetic population. Underlying digital artery disease, when compounded by an infected ulcer in close proximity, may result in complete loss of digital collaterals and precipitate gangrene.

The reason for the prevalence of this form of arterial disease in diabetic persons is thought to result from a number of metabolic abnormalities, including high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels, elevated plasma von Willebrand factor, inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis, elevated plasma fibrinogen levels, and increased platelet adhesiveness.


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