What are the clinical tumor stages of prostate cancer?

Updated: Jan 15, 2019
  • Author: Lanna Cheuck, DO; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Answer

Answer

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) classification and staging system for cancer are provided below. [34]  

Primary tumor

Clinical tumor staging is as follows:

  • TX - Primary tumor cannot be assessed
  • T0 - No evidence of primary tumor
  • T1 - Clinically inapparent tumor not palpable 
  • T1a - Tumor incidental histologic finding in 5% or less of tissue resected
  • T1b - Tumor incidental histologic finding in more than 5% of tissue resected
  • T1c - Tumor identified by needle biopsy (because of elevated PSA level); tumors found in 1 or both lobes by needle biopsy but not palpable 
  • T2 - Tumor is palpable and confined within prostate
  • T2a - Tumor involves up to half of one lobe
  • T2b - Tumor involves more than half of one lobe but not both lobes
  • T2c - Tumor involves both lobes
  • T3 - Extraprostatic tumor that is not fixed or does not invade adjacent structures
  • T3a - Extracapsular extension (unilateral or bilateral)
  • T3b - Tumor invading seminal vesicle(s)
  • T4 - Tumor fixed or invading adjacent structures other than seminal vesicles (eg, bladder neck, external sphincter, rectum, levator muscles, pelvic wall)

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