How is a psoas hitch performed for iatrogenic ureteral injury repair?

Updated: Nov 12, 2020
  • Author: Sandip P Vasavada, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

After a Foley catheter is placed and the patient is prepared and draped in a sterile manner, various incisions are acceptable, including a midline, a Pfannenstiel, or a suprapubic V-shaped incision. A midline incision is preferred if the patient has a preexisting midline scar from a previous gynecologic operation. If entering the peritoneal cavity can be avoided, this incision is preferred.

The peritoneal reflection is dissected off the bladder. Some urologists advocate saline installation in the subperitoneal connective tissue as a way of facilitating this portion of the dissection. If a peritoneal defect is encountered, it can be closed with a running chromic suture. Once the peritoneum is dissected off the bladder, the peritoneum can be reflected medially.

Attention is then turned to dissection and excision of the diseased ureteral segment. The diseased portion of the ureter is identified, and a clamp is placed on the ureter proximal to it. A diseased portion of ureter is excised, a stay stitch is placed on the proximal segment of the ureter, and the distal stump is ligated.

The superior pedicle of the bladder is ligated on the ipsilateral side, and the bladder wall is incised transversely, a little more than halfway around the bladder, in an oblique manner across the middle of its anterior wall at the level of its maximum diameter. When this horizontal incision is closed vertically, the effect of the incision is the elongation of the anterior wall of the bladder so that the apex of the bladder can be positioned and fixed above the iliac vessels.

After the bladder incision is made, 2 fingers are placed into the bladder to elevate it to the level of the proximal end of the ureter. If the bladder does not reach the proximal ureter, several steps can be performed for additional length. These steps include extending the bladder wall incision laterally to obtain further length, or the peritoneum and connective tissue from the pelvic and lateral walls may be dissected from the contralateral side of the bladder. This dissection may require ligation and division of the superior vesical pedicle on the contralateral side.

Once adequate mobilization of the bladder has occurred, the bladder is held against the tendinous portion of the psoas minor muscle without tension. Prolene sutures (2-0) are sutured into the bladder wall and to the tendon to fix the bladder in place.

With the bladder open, attention is turned to the ureteral reimplant. An incision is made in the bladder mucosa at the proposed site of the new ureteral orifice. A submucosal dissection occurs approximately 3 cm from the incision site so that a tunnel is created. Lahey scissors may be used to facilitate this dissection. After achieving a 3-cm tunnel length, the scissors are inverted and the tips are pushed through the bladder wall. An 8F feeding tube is passed over the scissor blades, and the stay suture on the proximal tip of the ureter is tied to the other end of the catheter so that traction on the catheter draws the ureter into the bladder. The ureteral tip is trimmed obliquely, and 4-6 absorbable sutures (4-0) are used to fix the ureter to the bladder mucosa. The ureteral adventitia is tacked to the extravesical bladder wall with several 4-0 absorbable sutures. A double-J ureteral stent may be placed at this time.

A nontunneled reimplant is also an acceptable choice in most adults if ureteral length is insufficient. The end of the ureter can be reflected back after making a small longitudinal incision from the tip proximally about 1.5 cm. This will make the end of the ureter into a nonrefluxing nipple, which is useful when there is inadequate length for an antirefluxing submucosal tunnel.

After completing the reimplant, 2 fingers are placed within the bladder, while 5 or 6 absorbable sutures (2-0) are placed within the bladder muscle, the psoas muscle, and the psoas minor tendon, paying specific attention not to suture the genitofemoral nerve. Alternatively, sutures may also take deep bites in the muscle itself. The bladder is closed with a 3-0 running absorbable suture on the mucosa and a running 2-0 suture incorporating the bladder muscle and adventitial layers. A Penrose drain or a JP drain is placed in the retroperitoneum next to the bladder closure. The anterior abdominal fascia and the skin then are closed.


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