What is the second most important risk factor for bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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In addition to smoking cessation, the EAU guidelines address the second most important risk factor, occupational exposure to carcinogens, with a recommendation that workers be informed of the risk and protective measures taken. [144]  Occupational exposures include the following [64] :

  • Aromatic hydrocarbons - common in metal processing
  • Aromatic amines - used in dyes
  • N-nitrosamines - found in rubber and tobacco
  • Formaldehyde

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