What is the most established risk factor for bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

Cigarette smoking is the most established risk factor for bladder cancer, increasing relative risk four- to five-fold relative to never smoking for current smokers and two- to three-fold for former smokers. It is the cause of 50% of cases in both men and women  [23]


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