What is the role of programmed cell death inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
  • Print

Agents that inhibit programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) protein and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are part of immune checkpoint pathways that regulate T-cell activation to escape antitumor immunity, have entered clinical practice as second-line therapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma, and are beginning to establish a role as first-line agents in patients who are not candidates for cisplatin chemotherapy. Agents in this category include atezolizumab, nivolumab, durvalumab, and avelumab.

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!