What is the role of programmed cell death inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

Agents that inhibit programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) protein and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are part of immune checkpoint pathways that regulate T-cell activation to escape antitumor immunity, have entered clinical practice as second-line therapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma, and are beginning to establish a role as first-line agents in patients who are not candidates for cisplatin chemotherapy. Agents in this category include atezolizumab, nivolumab, durvalumab, and avelumab.


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