What is the criterion standard for the treatment of patients with stage T2-T4 bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

The criterion standard for the treatment of patients with stage T2-T4 disease is radical cystoprostatectomy for men and anterior pelvic exenteration for women. Additionally, all patients should undergo bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy.

Level 1 evidence supports the use of preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In addition, a series of studies have shown substantial benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy in these patients. Booth and Tannock have noted that few patients in North America receive neoadjuvant therapy, however, and suggest that neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy should be provided to all patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who are sufficiently fit to receive it. [95]


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