How is carcinoma in situ (CIS) bladder cancer defined and graded?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

CIS, which is defined as a flat, high-grade, noninvasive cancer, is an exception to the above concept. Although some are tempted to consider CIS a premalignant condition, in reality it is an aggressive form of cancer that is detected prior to invasion. Therefore, aggressive management and surveillance are warranted. Likewise, the opportunity to affect CIS-associated mortality is significant because this type of cancer may respond to conservative therapy. If left untreated, however, CIS can lead to an invasive bladder cancer.


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