What is the prevalence of each stage of bladder cancer at diagnosis?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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More than 70% of all newly diagnosed bladder cancers are non–muscle invasive, approximately 50-70% are Ta, 20-30% are T1, and 10% are CIS. Approximately 25% of affected patients have muscle-invasive disease at diagnosis. Approximately 5% of patients present with metastatic disease, which commonly involves the lymph nodes, lung, liver, bone, and central nervous system. 

In order to clinically stage a patient with muscle-invasive bladder cancer the following needs to be completed: CT or MRI of the abdomen and pelvis, chest imaging, CBC, and chemistry panel with alkaline phosphatase. [80] Bone imaging is recommended only if there is concern for bone metastasis, which could be indicated by bone pain or an elevated alkaline phosphatase. [1] Currently, routine PET scanning is not recommended during the initial staging workup. [80]   

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