What effect does instrumentation have on urine cytology findings in the evaluation of bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Instrumentation may cause reactive cellular changes, contributing to variability in interpretation. False-positive reports of malignant cells are uncommon, but ambiguous reports of atypical cells are frequent.

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