What are the risk factors for recurrence and progression of bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Risk factors for recurrence and progression include the following [62, 63] :

  • Female sex
  • Larger tumor size
  • Multifocality
  • Larger number of tumors
  • High tumor grade
  • Advanced stage
  • Presence of CIS

The time interval to recurrence is also significant. Patients with tumor recurrences within 2 years, and especially with recurrences within 3-6 months, have an aggressive tumor and an increased risk of disease progression.

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