How does schistosomiasis infection cause bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

The eggs are found embedded in the lamina propria and muscularis propria of the bladder wall. Many of the eggs are destroyed by host reaction and become calcified, resulting in a lesion commonly known as a sandy patch, which appears as a granular, yellow-tan surface lesion.

In normal epithelial cells, S haematobium total antigen reportedly induces increased proliferation, migration, and invasion and decreases apoptosis. [30] Keratinous squamous metaplasia has been associated with the increased risk of developing SCC, with approximately one half of the cases arising subsequent to the metaplasia. [31, 32]

The majority of schistosomiasis-related cases of SCC will arise in the setting of chronic cystitis. [33] Chronic irritation secondary to lithiasis, [6, 7] urinary retention, and indwelling catheters has also been linked to the development of SCC. [7]


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