How does schistosomiasis infection cause bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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The eggs are found embedded in the lamina propria and muscularis propria of the bladder wall. Many of the eggs are destroyed by host reaction and become calcified, resulting in a lesion commonly known as a sandy patch, which appears as a granular, yellow-tan surface lesion.

In normal epithelial cells, S haematobium total antigen reportedly induces increased proliferation, migration, and invasion and decreases apoptosis. [30] Keratinous squamous metaplasia has been associated with the increased risk of developing SCC, with approximately one half of the cases arising subsequent to the metaplasia. [31, 32]

The majority of schistosomiasis-related cases of SCC will arise in the setting of chronic cystitis. [33] Chronic irritation secondary to lithiasis, [6, 7] urinary retention, and indwelling catheters has also been linked to the development of SCC. [7]

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