What is the role of schistosomiasis in the etiology of bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

In many developing countries, particularly in the Middle East, Schistosoma haematobium infection causes most cases of bladder SCC. In a study from Egypt, 82% of patients with bladder carcinoma harbored S haematobium eggs in the bladder wall. In egg-positive patients, the tumor tended to develop at a younger age (with SCC predominant) than it did in egg-negative persons. A higher degree of adenocarcinoma has also been reported in schistosomal-associated bladder carcinomas. [29]

Along with S haematobium, the species S mansoni and S japonicum are responsible for schistosomiasis in humans. The eggs reside in the pelvic and mesenteric venous plexus. In the bladder, a severe inflammatory response and fibrosis secondary to the deposition of Schistosoma eggs is common. (See the image below.)

Bladder cancer. Histopathology of bladder shows eggs of Schistosoma haematobium surrounded by intense infiltrates of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells.

Bladder cancer. Histopathology of bladder shows eg Bladder cancer. Histopathology of bladder shows eggs of Schistosoma haematobium surrounded by intense infiltrates of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells.

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