Which factors promote tumor growth in bladder cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
  • Print

In addition to tumor cell alterations, the microenvironment may promote tumor growth by paracrine influences, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and aberrant E-cadherin expression. Finally, a growing body of research over the last decade indicates that epigenetic alterations may silence tumor suppressor genes and that they represent important events in tumor progression. [18, 19, 20]

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!