Which genetic alterations are common in bladder cancers?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Kara N Babaian, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Additionally, alterations in retinoblastoma (Rb), PTEN, and p16 are common in high-grade invasive cancers. [16] Overexpression of JUN, MAP2K6, STAT3, and ICAM1 and molecules associated with survival (Bcl-2, caspase-3, p53, survivin), as well as insensitivity to antigrowth signals (p53, p21, p16, pRB), has been demonstrated. [17]

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