What is the mortality and morbidity of urethritis?

Updated: Dec 12, 2018
  • Author: Martha K Terris, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Approximately 10%-40% of women with urethritis eventually develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which may subsequently cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy secondary to postinflammatory scar formation in the fallopian tubes. PID can occur even in women with asymptomatic infections.

Children born to mothers with Chlamydia infection may develop conjunctivitis, iritis, otitis media, or pneumonia if exposed to the organism while passing through the birth canal. Performing cesarean delivery in patients with known chlamydial infections and routine treatment of all newborns with antichlamydial eyedrops has decreased the incidence of this problem in developed countries.

Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) and reactive arthritis develop in fewer than 1% of female patients with urethritis. Reactive arthritis is characterized by NGU, anterior uveitis, and arthritis and is strongly associated with the gene for HLA-B27. Rare but serious complications of DGI include arthritis, meningitis, and endocarditis.

Morbidity due to urethritis in males is less common (1%-2%), typically taking the form of urethral stricture or stenosis due to postinflammatory scar formation. Other potential complications of urethritis in males include prostatitis, acute epididymitis, abscess formation, proctitis, infertility, abnormal semen, DGI, and reactive arthritis.

Mortality rates are minimal in patients with gonococcal urethritis or NGU.

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