What symptoms are associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?

Updated: Feb 19, 2021
  • Author: Levi A Deters, MD; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Answer

Symptoms often attributed to BPH can be caused by other disease processes, and a history and physical examination are essential in ruling out other etiologies of (lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (see DDx/Diagnostic Considerations).

When the prostate enlarges, it may act like a "clamp on a hose," constricting the flow of urine. Nerves within the prostate and bladder may also play a role in causing the following common symptoms:

  • Urinary frequency - The need to urinate frequently during the day or night (nocturia), usually voiding only small amounts of urine with each episode

  • Urinary urgency - The sudden, urgent need to urinate, owing to the sensation of imminent loss of urine without control

  • Hesitancy - Difficulty initiating the urinary stream; interrupted, weak stream

  • Incomplete bladder emptying - The feeling of persistent residual urine, regardless of the frequency of urination

  • Straining - The need strain or push (Valsalva maneuver) to initiate and maintain urination in order to more fully evacuate the bladder

  • Decreased force of stream - The subjective loss of force of the urinary stream over time

  • Dribbling - The loss of small amounts of urine due to a poor urinary stream

A sexual history is important, as epidemiologic studies have identified LUTS as an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory dysfunction. [5]


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