What are the voiding symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?

Updated: Feb 19, 2021
  • Author: Levi A Deters, MD; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Answer

The voiding dysfunction that results from prostate gland enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is termed lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). It has also been commonly referred to as prostatism, although this term has decreased in popularity. These entities overlap; not all men with BPH have LUTS, and likewise, not all men with LUTS have BPH. Approximately half of men diagnosed with histopathologic BPH report moderate-to-severe LUTS.

Clinical manifestations of LUTS include urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia (awakening at night to urinate), decreased or intermittent force of stream, or a sensation of incomplete emptying. Complications occur less commonly but may include acute urinary retention (AUR), impaired bladder emptying, the need for corrective surgery, renal failure, recurrent urinary tract infections, bladder stones, or gross hematuria. (See Presentation.)

Prostate volume may increase over time in men with BPH. In addition, peak urinary flow, voided volume, and symptoms may worsen over time in men with untreated BPH (see Workup). The risk of AUR and the need for corrective surgery increases with age.


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