What is included in the long-term monitoring of nephrolithiasis?

Updated: Jun 21, 2018
  • Author: Chirag N Dave, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

Patients who do not meet admission criteria may be discharged from the ED in anticipation that the stone will pass spontaneously at home. Arrangements should be made for follow-up with a urologist in 2-3 days. Patients should be told to return immediately for fever, uncontrolled pain, or inability to tolerate oral intake which can lead to dehydration. Patients should be discharged with a urine strainer and encouraged to submit any recovered calculi to a urologist for chemical analysis.

Follow-up for patients with first-time incidence of stones should consist of stone analysis and abbreviated metabolic evaluation to rule out hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, and chronic infection with urea-splitting bacteria.

Patients with recurrent ureterolithiasis should undergo a more thorough metabolic evaluation. Patients with recurrent stones who undergo thorough metabolic evaluation and specific therapy enjoy a remission rate in excess of 80% and can decrease the rate of stone formation by 90%. A stone chemical analysis together with serum and appropriate 24-hour urine metabolic tests can identify the etiology in more than 95% of patients.

A typical 24-hour urine determination should include urinary volume, pH, specific gravity, calcium, citrate, magnesium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid. Most common findings are hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, and low urinary volume.


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