What are the chemical types of calculi in nephrolithiasis?

Updated: Jun 21, 2018
  • Author: Chirag N Dave, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Answer

The following are the four main chemical types of renal calculi, which together are associated with more than 20 underlying etiologies:

  • Calcium stones

  • Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) stones

  • Uric acid stones

  • Cystine stones

Stone analysis, together with serum and 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation, can identify an etiology in more than 95% of patients. Specific therapy can result in a remission rate of more than 80% and can decrease the individual recurrence rate by 90%. Therefore, emergency physicians should stress the importance of urologic follow-up, especially in patients with recurrent stones, solitary kidneys, or previous kidney or stone surgery and in all children. [6]


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