What are the signs and symptoms of tension pneumothorax?

Updated: Apr 28, 2020
  • Author: Brian J Daley, MD, MBA, FACS, FCCP, CNSC; Chief Editor: Mary C Mancini, MD, PhD, MMM  more...
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Answer

Signs and symptoms of tension pneumothorax are usually more impressive than those seen with a simple pneumothorax, and clinical interpretation of these is crucial for diagnosing and treating the condition. Tension pneumothorax is classically characterized by hypotension and hypoxia. On examination, breath sounds are absent on the affected hemothorax and the trachea deviates away from the affected side. The thorax may also be hyperresonant; jugular venous distention and tachycardia may be present. If on mechanical ventilation, the airway pressure alarms are triggered.

Unlike the obvious patient presentations oftentimes used in medical training courses to describe a tension pneumothorax, actual case reports include descriptions of the diagnosis of the condition being missed or delayed because of subtle presentations that do not always present with the classically described clinical findings of this condition or the complexity of the patient with critical illness or injury. Nevertheless, tension pneumothorax should always be a consideration when acute compromise occurs.

Symptoms of tension pneumothorax may include chest pain (90%), dyspnea (80%), anxiety, fatigue, or acute epigastric pain (a rare finding).


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