What are the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma?

Updated: Apr 13, 2018
  • Author: Mahesh Kumar Neelala Anand, MBBS, DNB, FRCR; Chief Editor: John Karani, MBBS, FRCR  more...
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High-risk groups for cholangiocarcinomas include patients with the following [1] :

  • Parasitic diseases of the biliary tract with either Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis viverrini infestation (C sinensis infestation is the most common cause worldwide.)

  • Congenital choledochal cysts

  • Inflammatory bowel disease (The risk increases 10 times. The incidence of cholangiocarcinomas in patients with ulcerative colitis is 0.4-1.4%, with a latent period of 15 yr.)

  • History of other malignancy (10% of cases)

  • Previous surgery for choledochal cyst or biliary atresia

  • Gallstones (20-50% of cases, probably coincidental)

  • Papillomatosis of the bile ducts

  • Thorotrast exposure

  • Chronic typhoid carrier status

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