What history suggests antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Updated: Nov 24, 2020
  • Author: Suneel Movva, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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History of any of the following should raise the examiner's suspicion for APS:

  • Thrombosis (eg, DVT/PE, MI, transient ischemic attack [TIA], or stroke, especially if recurrent, at an earlier age, or in the absence of other known risk factors)

  • Miscarriage (especially late trimester or recurrent) or premature birth

  • History of heart murmur or cardiac valvular vegetations

  • History of hematologic abnormalities, such as thrombocytopenia or hemolytic anemia

  • History of nephropathy

  • Nonthrombotic neurologic symptoms, such as migraine headaches, chorea, seizures, transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or dementia (rare)

  • Unexplained adrenal insufficiency

  • Avascular necrosis of bone in the absence of other risk factors

  • Pulmonary hypertension

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