Which organ systems can be affected by antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Updated: Nov 24, 2020
  • Author: Suneel Movva, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Clinically, the series of events that leads to hypercoagulability and recurrent thrombosis can affect virtually any organ system, including the following:

  • Peripheral venous system (deep venous thrombosis [DVT])

  • Central nervous system (stroke, sinus thrombosis, seizures, chorea, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome)

  • Peripheral nervous system (peripheral neuropathy including Guillain–Barré syndrome)

  • Hematologic (thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia)

  • Obstetric (pregnancy loss, eclampsia)

  • Pulmonary (pulmonary embolism [PE], pulmonary hypertension)

  • Dermatologic (livedo reticularis, purpura, infarcts/ulceration)

  • Cardiac (Libman-Sacks valvulopathy, MI, diastolic dysfunction)

  • Ocular (amaurosis, retinal thrombosis)

  • Adrenal (infarction/hemorrhage)

  • Musculoskeletal (avascular necrosis of bone)

  • Renal (thrombotic microangiopathy)

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