Which pulmonary findings suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Updated: Feb 02, 2021
  • Author: Lawrence H Brent, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Restrictive lung disease may occur in patients with late-stage AS, with costovertebral and costosternal involvement that limits chest expansion. Bilateral apical pulmonary fibrosis rarely occurs in the setting of severe disease. These lesions may cavitate and become colonized by bacteria or fungi (eg, Aspergillus), resulting in cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis.

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