How is the oculomotor apparatus involved in giant cell arteritis (GCA) (temporal arteritis)?

Updated: Sep 03, 2020
  • Author: Mythili Seetharaman, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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The oculomotor apparatus can be involved at any level, including the extraocular muscles (EOM), nerves, and brain stem. However, the most common site is the EOM. A characteristic feature of EOM involvement is daily fluctuation of the ocular motility disorder. Horner syndrome is uncommon, judging from a review of several large series; however, ptosis and miosis may occur together, separately, or in conjunction with other oculomotor disturbances.

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