What are the roles of PDGF and VEGF in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) (temporal arteritis)?

Updated: Sep 03, 2020
  • Author: Mythili Seetharaman, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is important in stimulating intimal hyperplasia. In GCA, PDGF derives from macrophages and giant cells, and this distinguishes GCA from other vasculopathies. In atherosclerotic disease, for example, PDGF is produced mostly by resident smooth muscle cells rather than monocytes.

Intimal macrophages also produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes intimal proliferation. Medial macrophages generate metalloproteinases, leading to the destruction of vascular elements, including the internal elastic lamina. [13] Adventitial macrophages produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), augmenting the inflammatory response. This results in inflammation with local vascular damage and intimal hyperplasia, leading to stenosis and occlusion. [14]


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