What causes acute inflammation in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis?

Updated: Nov 14, 2018
  • Author: Jefferson R Roberts, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

An antigen may stimulate aortic tissue, leading to the expression of heat shock protein–65, which, in turn, induces major histocompatibility (MHC) class I–related chain A (MICA). Natural killer cells and gamma-delta T cells expressing NKG2D receptors may infiltrate and recognize MICA on vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to acute inflammation. Proinflammatory cytokines are also released from the natural killer and T-cells, inducing the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and amplifying the inflammatory response. This, in turn, would induce more MHC antigen and stimulate molecule expression on vascular cells, recruiting more mononuclear cells.


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