What is the pathophysiology of Takayasu arteritis?

Updated: Nov 14, 2018
  • Author: Jefferson R Roberts, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

Takayasu arteritis is an inflammatory disease of large- and medium-sized arteries, with a predilection for the aorta and its branches. Advanced lesions demonstrate a panarteritis with intimal proliferation.

Lesions produced by the inflammatory process can be stenotic, occlusive, or aneurysmal. All aneurysmal lesions may have areas of arterial narrowing. Vascular changes lead to the main complications, including hypertension, most often due to renal artery stenosis or, more rarely, stenosis of the suprarenal aorta; aortic insufficiency due to aortic valve involvement; pulmonary hypertension; and aortic or arterial aneurysm.

The renal arteries are involved in 24% to 68% of Takayasu arteritis cases. Renal artery involvement is often bilateral. Patients with renal artery involvement typically have coexistent stenosis of the perirenal aorta. [5]

Congestive heart failure is a common finding, much more so than dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and pericarditis, which also have been reported. In patients in whom the pulmonary artery is involved, the right artery appears to be affected more than the left, with patients developing pneumonia, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, and alveolar damage.

Other pathophysiologic consequences include hypotensive ischemic retinopathy, vertebrobasilar ischemia, microaneurysms, carotid stenosis, hypertensive encephalopathy, and inflammatory bowel disease. Rarely, Takayasu arteritis has also been associated with glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, Still disease, and ankylosing spondylitis.


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