What does fever indicate in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Updated: Aug 04, 2021
  • Author: Christie M Bartels, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

Fever is a challenging problem in SLE. It can be a manifestation of active lupus, infection, malignancy, or a drug reaction. Low-grade fever is observed in patients on immunosuppressive agents, and lymphadenopathy or splenomegaly may be found.

In patients with fever, infectious causes—both viral and bacterial—need to be ruled out. Lupus patients may be functionally asplenic and may be at risk for encapsulated bacterial infections such as meningococcemia. Patients with SLE who are on immunosuppressive therapy are at a higher risk of death due to viral infection (eg, herpes simplex virus [HSV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], varicella-zoster virus [VZV]) and should be treated accordingly if an infection is suspected. [95] An infection can mimic a lupus flare, and delays in diagnosis and treatment can increase the risk of mortality. [96]


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