What are the modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis identified by the NOF?

Updated: Aug 27, 2020
  • Author: Monique Bethel, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Multiple risk factors exist for osteoporosis. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) has categorized these risk factors into two categories: nonmodifiable and modifiable. Nonmodifiable risk factors include the following:

  • Personal history of fracture as an adult

  • History of fracture in a first-degree relative

  • White race

  • Advanced age

  • Female sex

  • Dementia

  • Poor health or fragility

Potentially modifiable risk factors include the following:

  • Current cigarette smoking

  • Low body weight (< 127 lb)

  • Estrogen deficiency such as that caused by early menopause (age < 45 years) or bilateral ovariectomy and prolonged premenopausal amenorrhea (>1 year)

  • Low lifelong calcium intake

  • Alcoholism [64]

  • Impaired eyesight despite adequate correction

  • Recurrent falls

  • Inadequate physical activity

  • Poor health or frailty

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