Which lab studies are included in the workup of osteoporosis?

Updated: Jan 20, 2021
  • Author: Rachel Elizabeth Whitaker Elam, MD, MSc; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

Baseline laboratory studies include the following:

  • Complete blood count: May reveal anemia
  • Serum chemistry levels: Usually normal in persons with primary osteoporosis
  • Liver function tests
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone level: Thyroid dysfunction has been associated with osteoporosis
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D level: Vitamin D insufficiency can predispose to osteoporosis
  • Serum protein electrophoresis: Multiple myeloma may be associated with osteoporosis
  • 24-hour urine calcium/creatinine: Hypercalciuria may be associated with osteoporosis; further investigation with measurement of intact parathyroid hormone and urine pH may be indicated; hypocalciuria may indicate malabsorption, which should be further evaluated with a serum vitamin D measurement and consideration of testing for malabsorption syndromes such as celiac sprue
  • Testosterone (total and/or free) and luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone: Male hypogonadism is associated with osteoporosis

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