What is the role of synovial fluid analysis in the workup of Lyme disease?

Updated: Aug 01, 2019
  • Author: John O Meyerhoff, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

In patients with Lyme arthritis, synovial fluid is usually inflammatory, with cell counts ranging from 500-98,000/µL reported. In adult patients, the fluid should also be examined for crystals to rule out gout and pseudogout.

One study that included 63 patients with Lyme arthritis found that although the majority had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for B burgdorferi DNA in synovial fluid, none of the samples tested were positive for B burgdorferi messenger RNA (a marker of spirochetal viability), even when the specimen was obtained before initiation of antibiotic treatment. These results suggest that detection of B burgdorferi DNA in synovial fluid is not a reliable test for active joint infection in Lyme disease. [48]


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