What is the recommended dosage of allopurinol in the treatment of chronic gout?

Updated: Jan 26, 2021
  • Author: Bruce M Rothschild, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

In most patients, start allopurinol at 100 mg/day (50 mg/day in patients with renal insufficiency). Stamp et al have proposed that the risk of allopurinol hypersensitivity may be reduced by starting allopurinol at a dose of 1.5 mg per unit of estimated GFR. [161]

Adjust the dosage upward every 2-5 weeks according to the uric acid level until the goal of a uric acid level of 6 mg/dL or less is achieved. Once the target uric acid level has been achieved and maintained for 6 months, discontinue colchicine prophylaxis, unless the patient has 1 or more tophi on clinical exam.

Previously, adjusting the allopurinol maintenance dosage to the creatinine clearance rate was recommended for patients with renal insufficiency. However, Vázquez-Mellado et al found no increase in the prevalence of adverse reactions to allopurinol in patients who were started at an adjusted dosage but subsequently had their dosage raised to meet therapeutic targets. [162]

ACR guidelines advise that the dosage of allopurinol can be raised above 300 mg/day, even in patients with renal impairment, provided that the patient receives adequate education and monitoring for drug toxicity (including measurement of transaminase levels). The maximum dosage of allopurinol approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is 800 mg/day, [125] but the maximum dosage should be lower in patients with chronic kidney disease.


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