Which factors influence how pain is perceived in patients with fibromyalgia?

Updated: Nov 14, 2018
  • Author: Chad S Boomershine, MD, PhD, CPI, CPT; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

In addition to strictly sensory-discriminative elements of nociception and afferent input from somatic reflexes, major contributions from pathways and regions of the brain that are associated with emotional, motivational, and cognitive aspects of pain are evident and help determine the subjective intensity of pain. The 2 principal effectors of the stress response, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), are also activated.

Although normally adaptive, the stress response may become maladaptive in patients with chronic pain and fatigue syndromes such as fibromyalgia. [20, 21, 22, 23] Negative emotions (eg, depression and anxiety) and other negative psychological factors (eg, loss of control, unpredictability in one's environment) and certain cognitive aspects (eg, negative beliefs and attributions, catastrophizing) can all function as stressors with actions in these systems.


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