What is chronic traumatic encephalopathy?

Updated: Feb 01, 2018
  • Author: Percival H Pangilinan, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA  more...
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Answer

Persons with a history of repetitive brain trauma, including boxers and football players, are at risk for developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive degenerative disease. [39] Degenerative changes, which can begin months to decades after the patient’s last brain trauma, include atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem. The condition is also characterized by ventricular dilatation and by fenestration of the cavum septum pellucidum, as well as the accumulation of phosphorylated tau in the brain, with deposits of the protein being found in the sulci and in perivascular areas of the cerebral cortex. [40]

According to a consensus panel of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, the pathognomonic lesion of CTE is “an accumulation of abnormal hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in neurons and astroglia distributed around small blood vessels at the depths of cortical sulci and in an irregular pattern.” [41]

A study by Armstrong et al of 11 cases of CTE found dotlike lesions to be consistently present in the brain, suggesting a similarity between CTE and both argyrophilic grain disease and Parkinson disease dementia. [42]

Symptoms of CTE include memory loss, confusion, impaired judgment, reduced impulse control, aggression, explosive anger, depression, and progressive dementia. [43, 44, 45, 46]

According to a report from the US Department of Veterans Affairs and Boston University, 87 of 91 deceased former players for the National Football League (NFL) (96%) who donated their brains for study were found to have CTE (although the donors had, prior to death, expressed concern that they might have CTE and so may have had a higher proportion of the disease than does the overall population of former NFL players). [47, 48]


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