What are the long-term impairments of traumatic brain injury (TBI)?

Updated: Mar 02, 2020
  • Author: Percival H Pangilinan, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA  more...
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Answer

Answer

Long-term physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments are the factors that most commonly limit a patient's reintegration into the community and his/her return to employment. They include the following:

  • Insomnia

  • Cognitive decline

  • Posttraumatic headache: Tension-type headaches are the most common form, but exacerbations of migraine-like headaches are also frequent

  • Posttraumatic depression: Depression after TBI is further associated with cognitive decline, [8, 9, 10, 11] anxiety disorders, substance abuse, dysregulation of emotional expression, and aggressive outbursts


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