What are the mechanisms of action for corticosteroid injections to treat joint and soft tissue injuries?

Updated: Mar 01, 2019
  • Author: Jess D Salinas, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Elizabeth A Moberg-Wolff, MD  more...
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Answer

Answer

The mechanism of corticosteroid action includes a reduction of the inflammatory reaction by limiting the capillary dilatation and permeability of the vascular structures. These compounds restrict the accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages and reduce the release of vasoactive kinins. [5] They also inhibit the release of destructive enzymes that attack the injury debris and destroy normal tissue indiscriminately.

Additionally, new research suggests that corticosteroids may inhibit the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids, thereby reducing the formation of prostaglandins, which contribute to the inflammatory process. Finally, the clinician should appreciate the importance of introducing a needle into the injured area. The needle itself may provide drainage and a release of pressure, and it may also mechanically disrupt the scar tissue in the muscle.


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