What are the functional stages of pulmonary hypertension?

Updated: Apr 25, 2018
  • Author: Kristin E Schwab, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Answer

On the basis of information adapted from the executive summary of the world symposium on Primary Pulmonary Hypertension in Evian, France, in 1998, pulmonary hypertension may be divided into the following functional classes:

  • Class I: These are patients with pulmonary hypertension but without resulting limitation of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity does not cause undue dyspnea or fatigue, chest pain, or near-syncope in patients.
  • Class II: These are patients with pulmonary hypertension resulting in slight limitation of physical activity. The patients are comfortable at rest, but ordinary physical activity causes undue dyspnea or fatigue, chest pain, or near-syncope.
  • Class III: These are patients with pulmonary hypertension resulting in marked limitation of physical activity. Patients are comfortable at rest, but even less-than-ordinary activity causes undue dyspnea or fatigue, chest pain, or near-syncope.
  • Class IV: These are patients with pulmonary hypertension who are unable to perform any physical activity without symptoms. These patients manifest signs of right-sided heart failure, dyspnea or fatigue may even be present at rest, and discomfort is increased by any physical activity.

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