What are the signs and symptoms of extrinsic disorder caused restrictive lung disease?

Updated: Sep 16, 2020
  • Author: Jonathan Robert Caronia, DO; Chief Editor: John J Oppenheimer, MD  more...
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Nonmuscular diseases of the chest wall affect patients with kyphoscoliosis. Patients younger than 35 years tend to be asymptomatic, whereas middle-aged patients develop dyspnea, decreased exercise tolerance, and respiratory infections. [25]

The cause of respiratory failure is often multifactorial and is secondary to spinal deformity, muscle weakness, disordered ventilatory control, sleep-disordered breathing, and airway disease. [26]

Neuromuscular disorders occur as the respiratory muscle weakness progresses. Patients develop dyspnea upon exertion, followed by dyspnea at rest, and their condition ultimately advances to respiratory failure.

Patients with neuromuscular diseases develop significant respiratory muscle weakness and may demonstrate fatigue, dyspnea, impaired control of secretions, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. In these patients, the central drive is not decreased. [27] Acute and chronic respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale eventually ensue.

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