What are the causes of pulmonary embolism (PE)?

Updated: Sep 18, 2020
  • Author: Daniel R Ouellette, MD, FCCP; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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The causes for pulmonary embolism are multifactorial and are not readily apparent in many cases. The causes described in the literature include the following:

  • Venous stasis

  • Hypercoagulable states

  • Immobilization

  • Surgery and trauma

  • Pregnancy

  • Oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement

  • Malignancy

  • Hereditary factors

  • Acute medical illness

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