Which clinical history findings suggest viral pneumonia?

Updated: Mar 24, 2021
  • Author: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP; Chief Editor: John J Oppenheimer, MD  more...
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Answer

The clinical manifestations of viral pneumonia vary because of the number of diverse etiologic agents. Their presentations are described briefly below. Various viral pneumonias typically occur during specific times of the year, among close populations or in populations with underlying cardiopulmonary or immunocompromising disease.

The common constitutional symptoms of viral pneumonias are fever, chills, nonproductive cough, rhinitis, myalgias, headaches, and fatigue. Symptoms of viral pneumonia are similar to that of bacterial pneumonia, although studies have shown a lower probability of having chest pain and rigors in viral pneumonias. [3] Most patients have cough, but in elderly persons, this may be only scant.

Ascertaining immunization status, travel history, and possible exposure is important. During outbreaks with the usual respiratory viruses, the signs and symptoms can suggest the correct diagnosis in most cases. In very elderly persons, the only complaint may be fever and change in mental status.

In immunocompromised patients, recognition of the clinical picture of viral pneumonia, risk factors, and new changes in clinical parameters is important. All of these findings can indicate the need for further imaging or other diagnostic procedures to make an etiologic diagnosis and to start early treatment.

The typical infection with influenza virus presents with sudden onset of fever, chills, myalgia, arthralgia, cough, sore throat, and rhinorrhea. The incubation period is 1-2 days, and symptoms normally last 3-5 days. These symptoms are common to other respiratory viral infections but are highly suggestive of influenza virus infection when an outbreak is occurring in the community. Influenza is usually seen in epidemics and pandemics in late winter and early spring.

Peak attack rates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) occur in the winter in infants younger than six months. Parainfluenza (PIV) infection most often occurs in the late fall or winter, although PIV-3 pneumonia is especially common in the spring.


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