What is the mortality and morbidity of parainfluenza virus (PIV) pneumonia?

Updated: Mar 24, 2021
  • Author: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP; Chief Editor: John J Oppenheimer, MD  more...
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PIV pneumonia causes 250,000 emergency visits annually, resulting in 70,000 admissions. Fully 18% of hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections in the United States have this disease.

Rates of PIV pneumonia are increased in immunocompromised pediatric groups, such as recipients of BMT, HSCT, lung transplantation, and solid-organ transplantation. PIV has been associated with 10% of acute respiratory illnesses in healthy adults and 10-50% in transplant recipients. In the latter group, the mortality rates range from 15-73%. [41] One study documented that 56% of PIV isolates were associated with upper respiratory symptoms in HSCT recipients but that 44% developed pneumonia, of whom 37% died. [20]

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