What is the prevalence of viral pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts?

Updated: Mar 24, 2021
  • Author: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP; Chief Editor: John J Oppenheimer, MD  more...
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Answer

Although immunocompromised patients are at higher risk for viral pneumonia from CMV, VZV, HSV, measles, and adenoviruses, seasonal viruses (influenza, RSV, PIV) remain a major cause of pneumonia. HSCT and SOT recipients are particularly at risk for acquiring lower respiratory tract infection due to CMV and RSV. [38, 39]

CMV pneumonia has been observed in 10-30% of patients with HSCT and 15-55% of heart-lung transplant recipients, making this virus the most common cause of viral pneumonia in the former patient group. [40] After CMV, the frequency of viruses isolated from HSCT patients vary, with influenza virus ranging from 14-52%, RSV 14-48%, adenovirus 2-21%, and PIV 11-49% of viral isolates. [41]

Although HSV has been shown to cause pneumonia in this patient population, it is relatively rare when compared with the other viral pathogens, with one study showing HSV to cause 5% of nonbacterial pneumonias in HSCT recipients, compared with 46% for CMV. [42]


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