What is the role of adenoviruses in the etiology of viral pneumonia?

Updated: Mar 24, 2021
  • Author: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP; Chief Editor: John J Oppenheimer, MD  more...
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Answer

Adenoviruses are enveloped DNA viruses that cause a wide spectrum of clinical illnesses depending on the serotype of the infecting agent. These include asymptomatic illness, conjunctivitis, febrile upper respiratory disease, pneumonia, gastrointestinal illness, hemorrhagic cystitis, rash, and neurologic disease. Pneumonia is less common in adults outside of military recruit camps and similar facilities, but fulminant disease has been described in infants and in the immunocompromised population and can occur in apparently healthy hosts. [15]

Although 52 serotypes exist, classified into 7 subgroups or species (A-G), pulmonary disease is predominantly caused by serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 14, and 21. Type 7 viruses can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. Types 4 and 7 viruses are responsible for outbreaks of respiratory disease in military recruits.

Adenovirus serotype 14 (subgroup B) is a more virulent strain that has been reported to cause severe respiratory illness and pneumonia. Emergence of this strain was reported in 2005 among civilian and military populations, with outbreaks occurring subsequently at military training centers throughout the United States.

In 2007, adenovirus serotype 14 caused a large, sustained outbreak of febrile respiratory illness among military trainees in Texas and, more recently, in a residential care facility in Washington State. [16, 17, 18] In a community outbreak in Oregon, the median age was 52 years, and 76% required hospitalization, 47% required critical care, 24% required vasopressors, and 18% died. The majority of these patients were otherwise immunocompetent adults. [19]

Spread of adenovirus is by respiratory secretions, infectious aerosols, feces, and fomites. Neonates may acquire infection from exposure to cervical secretions at birth.

Contaminated environmental surfaces can harbor virus capable of causing infection for weeks. The virus is resistant to lipid disinfectants but is inactivated by heat, formaldehyde, and bleach.

Adenoviruses are extremely contagious. Studies of new military recruits have shown seroconversion rates of 34-97% over a 6-week period. [16] The majority of children have serologic evidence of prior adenovirus infection by the age of 10.


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